Athens Holidays - The Acropolis (Part III)




我在雅典衛城(Acropolis)的第一個感覺就是很像龐貝古城,

都有著悠久的歷史,這裡甚至有更多的故事和傳說。


黑暗時代


雅典衛城的東南角,由奧林匹亞宙斯神殿望至。雅典衛城看來並沒有像其他邁錫尼宮殿般受到暴力破壞,

而且亦沒有曾被放火或大規模毀壞的痕跡,這是經由當時的文物推測而得。這與雅典人傳說裡此地成功抵

擋多利安人的入侵的論調吻合。現在無法得知上古時這裡的岩石建築是甚麼模樣的,不過仍可得知此地曾

被塞隆人在起義裡攻佔,並兩度被庇西特拉圖佔據,以奪取政權。而具有九門的城牆則像是在城的西北角

最大的水源處興建。庇西特拉圖在城的西南方,環城附近,建立了阿爾特蜜斯神殿,因為這是其家鄉的宗教。




When I was in the Acropolis the first feeling is like Pompeii,

both have a long history and here even have more stories and legends.


The Dark Ages


There is no conclusive evidence for the existence of a Mycenean palace on top of the Athenian Acropolis.

However, if there was such a palace, it seems to have been transplanted by later building activity on the Acropolis.

Not much is known as to the architectural appearance of the Acropolis until the archaic era.

In the 7th and the 6th centuries BC the site was taken over by Kylon during the failed Kylonian revolt,

and twice by Pisistratus: all attempts directed at seizing political power by coups d' etat. Nevertheless it seems that

a nine-gate wall, the Enneapylon, had been built around the biggest water spring, the "Clepsydra", at the northwestern foot.
 
 
 
 

pic. 1

巴特農神殿

The Parthenon



pic. 2

巴特農神殿

The Parthenon




pic. 3




pic. 4





古代衛城



通往衛城山門的梯級。現在可知在公元前6世紀中雅典的守護神雅典娜的神殿已在該地被建立了。

由眾多保存下來的殘蹟裡看出,這裡亦曾出現過多利斯式的石灰岩建築,藍鬍子神殿(Bluebeard temple),

但不知其是取代舊的神廟還是更為古老的神殿。在公元前6世紀後期,另一座神殿被興建了,即古代神殿(Archaios Naos)。

所謂的多普費爾德地基即有可能屬於此神殿,其存在時間最少與藍鬍子神殿等長,但不知其共存的時間有多久。

更為混亂的是,在藍鬍子神殿被拆除時,一座宏偉的大理石神殿落成,即舊巴特農神殿,大約在公元前490年,

雅典在馬拉松戰役取勝後建立的。為了配合其建立,城南頂點的舊遺跡被清除,並以8,000個兩噸重的由比雷埃夫斯石灰岩

製造的磚塊加高,部份地基甚至加高至11米。邁錫尼時代的城門被拆除,並以被用作慶禮用途的舊紀念門(Old Propylon)所取代。

但舊巴特農神殿並未及完成便在前480年波希戰爭時因波斯人入侵而與古代神殿及其他石製建築一起被夷平與燒毀。

在戰後,雅典人重新規劃這裡,首先在儀式上將古老且不再有用的文物與藝術品埋葬。近代,考古學家在雅典衛城發掘出很多財寶,

這些財寶大多是在當時埋在地下,所以在其後的歲月裡避過戰火的摧殘。(資料來自維基百科)



Archaic Acropolis



A temple sacred to "Athena Polias" (Protectress of the City) was quickly erected by mid-6th century BC.
This Doric limestone building, from which many relics survive, is referred to as the "Bluebeard" temple,
named after the pedimental three-bodied man-serpent sculpture, whose beards were painted dark blue.
Whether this temple replaced an older one, or a mere sacred precinct or altar, is not known.
In the late 6th century BC yet another temple was built, usually referred to as the Archaios Naos (Old Temple).
This temple of Athena Polias was built upon the Doerpfeld foundations. It is unknown where the "Bluebeard" temple was built.
There are two popular theories the "Bluebeard" temple was built upon the Doerpfeld foundations, the "Bluebeard" temple
was built where the Parthenon now stands. That being said it is unknown if the "Bluebeard" temple and the Archaios Naos coexisted.
To confuse matters, by the time the "Bluebeard" Temple had been dismantled, a newer and grander marble building,
the "Older Parthenon" (often called the "Ur-Parthenon", German for "Early Parthenon"), was started following the victory
at Marathon in 490 BC. To accommodate it, the south part of the summit was cleared of older remnants, made level by adding
some 8,000 two-ton blocks of Piraeus limestone, a foundation 11 m (36 ft) deep at some points, and the rest filled with earth
kept in place by the retaining wall. The Older Parthenon was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in 480 BC.
The building was burned and looted, along with the Archaios Naos and practically everything else on the rock.
After the Persian crisis had subsided, the Athenians incorporated many of the unfinished temple's architectural
members (unfluted column drums, triglyphs, metopes, etc.) into the newly built northern curtain wall of the Acropolis,
where they serve as a prominent "war memorial" and can still be seen today. The devastated site was cleared of debris.
Statuary, cult objects, religious offerings and unsalvageable architectural members were buried ceremoniously in several
deeply dug pits on the hill, serving conveniently as a fill for the artificial plateau created around the classic Parthenon.
This "Persian debris" is the richest archaeological deposit excavated on the Acropolis. (Information from Wekipedia)





pic. 5

雅典衛城

The Acropolis



pix. 6 & 7



pic. 8



pic. 9



pic. 10



pic. 11



pic. 12



pic. 13

在雅典衛城眺望雅典城

Athens city view from the Acropolis



pic. 14

女像柱的陽台

The Porch of the Caryatids




pic. 15



pic. 16

女像柱的陽台

The Porch of the Caryatids









30 comments:

  1. 睇左咁多次都係覺得咁宏偉 :)

    ReplyDelete
  2. Great history that you gave here. Some great views from the hilltop towards the end of the post. Thanks for the comparison between ancient and modern in picture 8.

    ReplyDelete
  3. I climbed the mountain on Photo 13!
    Yes the one on the right.
    It's fun and there's a nice little church on top of the hill.
    Did you also climb it?

    ReplyDelete
  4. Happy Chinese New Year Rafael :)

    ReplyDelete
  5. Thanks Kay! 雅典衛城真係一個好有吸引力的地方!

    ReplyDelete
  6. Thanks J! I'm glad that you like the photos
    and the history of the Acroplis!

    ReplyDelete
  7. To London Caller,
    Oh really? I was very interesting of that hill too,
    but I didn't know how to go there...

    ReplyDelete
  8. Thanks uLi! Happy Chinese New Year for you too! ^.^

    ReplyDelete
  9. 处身巴特农神殿,有感受到the Oracle of Delphi吗?有得到什么启示吗?哈哈哈------
    祝春节快乐!

    ReplyDelete
  10. 謝謝helloninie! 我也祝妳春節偷快! ^.^
    沒有像傳說中的Delphic Oracle 那樣, 在阿波羅神殿沒有遇
    見女祭司Phytia... 所以好可惜沒有得到阿波羅的神諭... 哈哈!

    ReplyDelete
  11. 黑白照片看起來很不錯,很有味道
    祝你新春愉快......

    ReplyDelete
  12. Must have been an awesome scene.

    ReplyDelete
  13. 多謝San哥哥欣賞這輯黑白照片,
    我也祝你新春愉快! ^.^

    ReplyDelete
  14. Thanks Mei Teng! That's really unforgettable scene!
    Hope you have a happy Chinese New Year! ^.^

    ReplyDelete
  15. my target! next year... i must go where you just came back.

    ReplyDelete
  16. The Athens city view is amazing especially with the clouds, and the black and white stone buildings.. It reminds me the classic movie of " Ten commandments"~~
    Happy Rabbit Year to you! :)

    ReplyDelete
  17. Hi,nice pics and great song..what's the name of this song?

    ReplyDelete
  18. Amazing pictures, history, buildings, etc - I was there summer 2009 - Well done

    ReplyDelete
  19. Ha ha... I followed the map I got from their tourist information board.
    It's not very tall, about 40 mins you can reach the top.

    Happy New Year Rafael!
    Do people in Macao eat special Portuguese food for new year? Ha!

    ReplyDelete
  20. Thanks Lily Riani! I hope you can visit the Acropolis next year!

    ReplyDelete
  21. Thank micki! I also wish you have a fabulous Rabbit Year!
    Yeah, all the scenes in Athens reminds you all the legends and stories!

    ReplyDelete
  22. Hi Nat, nice to meet you!
    I don't know the name of this song, I only search the Greek songs
    and choose the melody that I like and match with my post...

    ReplyDelete
  23. Thanks Tommy Andre Nekkoy! It was an unforgettable experience to travel in Athens!

    ReplyDelete
  24. Happy New Year London Caller!
    We usually eating at home during CNY,
    because all the restaurants are closed or
    double the price...

    ReplyDelete
  25. 祝你兔年行大運
    來年拍更多好照片!

    ReplyDelete
  26. 多謝San哥哥的祝福!
    我都視你兔年行好運! 影多D靚相!

    ReplyDelete
  27. I hope you had a great reunion dinner with your family!
    I ate too much yesterday...

    In Malaysia, we like to play mahjong in Chinese New Year.
    Too much time to kill... Ha ha

    ReplyDelete
  28. I had a reurion dinner last night too,
    people in Macau usually go to Casino...
    but I usually stay home playing TV games
    or listening music if I don't travel...
    because all the shops are closed...

    ReplyDelete
  29. wow! I like the sunset picture! The view through your camera lens is much more beautiful and awesome! ^0^

    ReplyDelete
  30. Thanks Ristinw! You can take beautiful pictures
    if you keep learning photography, hope you enjoy it!

    ReplyDelete

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