Athens Holidays - The Acropolis (Part II)






我在雅典衛城(Acropolis)參觀了很久, 一方面欣賞這些難得一見的古建築, 另一方面希望拍到理想的照片。
早上和下午的光源變化可以令照片截言不同, 要拍到一些有氣氛的照片, 有時需要到同一地點來回拍攝幾次,
當陽光照射在建築物上所發出的金光, 會令本來藍色的天空變成深藍色。
所以鏡頭下的影像會比眼晴看到的更多更漂亮, 這就是攝影的樂趣!


衛城由阿提卡的平原延伸至陡峭的懸崖上,三面被懸崖包圍。人們只可由西面步行上去,
在該處有一較低的山脊連接至阿雷奧帕古斯山。其由藍灰色的石灰石建成,
因此其十分堅硬但卻可被水份滲透。其表面由片岩、沙岩與石灰泥組成,較石灰石軟身但可防水滲透。
此種建法已為噴水井提供了良好的環境,而且在山腳有遮蔽的洞穴,雅典衛城看來並沒有像
其他邁錫尼宮殿般受到暴力破壞,而且亦沒有曾被放火或大規模毀壞的痕跡,這是經由當時的文物推測而得。
這與雅典人傳說裡此地成功抵擋多利安人的入侵的論調吻合。現在無法得知上古時這裡的岩石建築是甚麼模樣的,
不過仍可得知此地曾被塞隆人在起義裡攻佔,並兩度被庇西特拉圖佔據,以奪取政權。而具有九門的
城牆則像是在城的西北角最大的水源處興建。庇西特拉圖在城的西南方,環城附近,建立了阿爾特蜜斯神殿,
因為這是其家鄉的宗教。這樣便有了水源,所以人們通常環繞著其居住。

該處最早的古代文物來自中期新石器時代,但很多文獻記載著早在早期新石器時代,阿提卡附近便有人居住(前6000年)。
當進入青銅時代後,邁錫尼的邁卡隆被建在山丘的頂部,為邁錫尼君主居住地,其家人、護衛、信徒、工匠與平民百姓
均居住在此。這個城市被厚硬的巨石牆所包圍。(其有兩層矮牆以巨石製造並灌以水泥,其城門亦非正常排列,
便得矮牆與箭塔可以對右方的入侵者進行攻擊。)在當時有一場大地震衛城的東北角裂開了,結果水份可以被該處土地吸收。
人們精心製作了一組梯級並在該處開井,在邁錫尼時代,這是受到保護的水源,
並且在城市被包圍時起重要作用,提供了寶貴的食水。(資料來自維基百科)





I stayed at the Acropolis for a very long time.  On the one hand, I wanted to appreciate these
rare ancient buildings but on the other hand, I wanted to shoot some good pictures.
The differences of light in the morning and afternoon can produce totally different results.
To get the right mood, sometimes requires you to go back and forth several times in the same location.
This allows you to get the right amount of light to produce the picture that you want,
as the suns golden rays reflect off the buildings. They will also turn a blue sky into a darker richer blue.
That's why the images created under the watchful eye of the lens are more beautiful than
the images we see through our eyes. This is the fun of photography!

While the earliest artifacts date to the Middle Neolithic era, there have been documented habitations in Attica from
the Early Neolithic (6th millennium BC). There is little doubt that a Mycenaean megaron stood upon the hill during
the late Bronze Age.[citation needed] Nothing of this megaron survives except, probably, a single limestone column-base
and pieces of several sandstone steps. Soon after the palace was built a Cyclopean massive circuit wall was built,
760 meters long, up to 10 meters high, and ranging from 3.5 to 6 meters thick. This wall would serve as the main defense
for the acropolis until the 5th century. The wall consisted of two parapets built with large stone blocks and cemented
with an earth mortar called emplekton (Greek: ἔμπλεκτον). The wall follows typical Mycenaean convention in that
it followed the natural contour of the terrain and its gate was arranged obliquely, with a parapet and tower overhanging
the incomers' right-hand side, thus facilitating defense. There were two lesser approaches up the hill on its north side,
consisting of steep, narrow flights of steps cut in the rock. Homer is assumed to refer to this fortification when he
mentions the "strong-built House of Erechtheus" (Odyssey 7.81). At some point before the 13th century an earthquake caused
a fissure near the northeastern edge of the acropolis. This fissure extended some thirty five meters to a bed of soft marl
in which a well was dug. An elaborate set of stairs was built and the well was used as a protected source of drinking
water during some portion of the Mycenaean period, as it was invaluable in times of siege. (Information from Wekipedia)






pic. 1

雅典衛城上的神殿

The temple in the Acropolis


pix. 2 & 3



pic. 4

衛城山門的梯級

The steps to the Propylaea



pic. 5



pic. 6



pix. 7 & 8



pix. 9 & 10



pic. 11

雅典衛城

The Acropolis



pic. 12
  
The Erechtheum

厄瑞克忒翁廟





伯里克利建設計劃



巴特農神殿的西面。大部份主要的神殿在伯里克利當政時重建,其時為雅典的黃金時代
(公元前460年–公元前430年)。菲迪亞斯,雅典其中一位偉大的雕刻家與伊克蒂諾和
卡利克拉特,雅典最負盛名的兩位建築師負責此項重建計劃。

在公元前5世紀,雅典衛城最後成形。在歐利米登戰役獲勝後,西門與地米斯托克利開始
南城牆與西城牆的重建,而伯里克利則將巴特農特殿的建設交託給伊克蒂諾與菲迪亞斯。
在公元前437年,姆奈西克里開始建設衛城山門,以大理石構成,部份建設在庇西特拉圖時
的舊衛城山門上。這些柱廊在公元前432年大致完成,並有兩翼,北翼作為畫廊。
同時,南翼的勝利女神雅典娜神殿開始建設。雖然中途因伯羅奔尼撒戰爭影響而一度暫停,
但最終在尼西亞斯和平時期完工,大約在公元前421年與公元前415年間。

在同一時期,雅典人開始了厄瑞克忒翁廟的建設,其是由一系列的聖域組成,
包括雅典娜波麗亞絲神殿、波塞冬神殿、厄瑞克透斯神殿、凱克洛普斯神殿、厄爾斯神殿、
潘杜羅索斯神殿與阿革勞羅斯神殿,所以其亦被稱為女像柱的陽台。
在勝利女神雅典娜神殿與巴特農特殿間,為阿爾特蜜斯神殿,阿爾特蜜斯為希臘神話中的
月神與狩獵女神。古老的木雕女神像與普拉克西特利斯於公元前4世紀所雕的雕像並存於
聖所裡。在衛城山門後面,菲迪亞斯所製的巨大的雅典娜普羅瑪琪斯(其為勇冠三軍之神)
銅像,在公元前450年至公元前448年建成。其底座有1.50米高,而整個雕像高9米。
女神手持的頂端渡金長矛裡映射著斯尼旺海角的船隻,其左方的巨大盾牌上有著
半人半馬怪與庫瑞涅戰鬥的圖案。而Chalcotheke、Pandroseion、潘狄翁聖所、雅典娜聖壇、
宙斯聖所與羅馬時代所建的奧古斯都圓形神殿皆已不再存在。(資料來自維基百科)




The Periclean building program

The Periclean building programMost of the major temples were rebuilt under the leadership of Pericles during the
Golden Age of Athens (460–430 BC). Phidias, a great Athenian sculptor, and Ictinus and Callicrates,
 two famous architects, were responsible for the reconstruction.

During the 5th century BC, the Acropolis gained its final shape. After winning at Eurymedon in 468 BC,
 Cimon and Themistocles ordered the reconstruction of southern and northern walls,
and Pericles entrusted the building of the Parthenon to Ictinus and Callicrates.

In 437 BC Mnesicles started building the Propylaea, monumental gates with columns of Pentelic marble,
 partly built upon the old propylaea of Pisistratus. These colonnades were almost finished in 432 BC
 and had two wings, the northern one serving as picture gallery. At the same time, south of the propylaea,
 building of the small Ionic Temple of Athena Nike commenced. After an interruption caused by the
 Peloponnesian War, the temple was finished in the time of Nicias' peace, between 421 BC and 415 BC.

During the same period the building of the Erechtheum, a combination of sacred precincts including the
 temples of Athena Polias, Poseidon, Erechtheus, Cecrops, Herse, Pandrosos and Aglauros,
 with its so-called the Kore Porch (or Caryatids' balcony), was begun.

Between the temple of Athena Nike and the Parthenon there was the temenos of Artemis Brauronia
 or Brauroneion, the goddess represented as a bear and worshipped in the deme of Brauron.
The archaic xoanon of the goddess and a statue made by Praxiteles in the 4th century BC were both in the sanctuary.

Behind the Propylaea, Phidias' gigantic bronze statue of Athena Promachos ("she who fights in the front line"),
built between 450 BC and 448 BC, dominated. The base was 1.50 m (4 ft 11 in) high,
while the total height of the statue was 9 m (30 ft). The goddess held a lance whose gilt tip could be seen as
 a reflection by crews on ships rounding Cape Sounion, and a giant shield on the left side,
 decorated by Mys with images of the fight between the Centaurs and the Lapiths.
Other monuments that have left almost nothing visible to the present day are the Chalkotheke,
 the Pandroseion, Pandion's sanctuary, Athena's altar, Zeus Polieus's sanctuary and, from Roman times,
 the circular temple of Augustus and Rome. (Information from Wekipedia)







pix. 13 & 14

女像柱的陽台

The Porch of the Caryatids



pic. 15

The Erechtheum

厄瑞克忒翁廟








26 comments:

  1. The British also took one of the Caryatids back to London!
    You can see it free at the British Museum - take as many pictures you like.
    Those Caryatids you see at the temple are actually replicas.
    They already put the real ones in their new museum.
    They even reserve an empty space for the fourth one to unite with the other three sisters from the British Museum...

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hmmm... I must visit the British Museum,
    specially I didn't visit the Acropolis Museum,
    of course I want to take pictures!

    ReplyDelete
  3. Greece is my dream of photography. His work is a professional high class.

    ReplyDelete
  4. 哈哈哈哈------
    谁的国家古董宝物不见了那一块,去大英博物馆,一定可以找得到!

    ReplyDelete
  5. 其實真係好宏偉 a_a 點解d古人可以淨係用人手就起到d咁既野出黎

    ReplyDelete
  6. Thanks Baraçal-press ®! Greece is really great place for photography!

    ReplyDelete
  7. Helloninie妳講得無錯, 仲要係永久收藏... 真係冇法... @_@

    ReplyDelete
  8. 係呀Kay, 不過就難為左D後人要維修保養真係好艱難...
    亦都要多謝佢地, 我地先睇到咁偉大既古跡!

    ReplyDelete
  9. Se siente la historia en cada una de esas piedras.
    Magníficas construcciones.
    Saludos.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Ciao Wersemei! I can feel the history of all these stones too!
    The Acropolis is really great and magnificent!

    Gracias

    ReplyDelete
  11. 照片拍得真好
    有跟著你一起去旅行的感覺~
    特別喜歡用魚眼拍的那幾張~

    ReplyDelete
  12. 多謝San哥哥欣賞! 魚眼照片的立體感特別強,
    令照片有第一人身既視覺, 希望大家都感受到現場的感覺吧!
    我都經常看SAN哥哥的照片, 都好像去了現場一樣!

    ReplyDelete
  13. How many days did you spend in Athens?
    I spent 5 days in there.
    But I also took a day off to visit Pireas.
    And also a day off to Aegina Island.

    ReplyDelete
  14. I had 9 days stayed in Athens...
    I didn't visit any places around,
    because I'm the most lazy traveler! @_@

    ReplyDelete
  15. It looks so awesome! It must be exciting to see the history in person! Thanks also introduce the history part of it~

    ReplyDelete
  16. Ola!!!
    Dear Rafa happy new year!!! A lot of good things to you and to your photography!!!
    First love that photos hear!!!
    Great been in Athenas!!!
    See you dear
    kiss

    ReplyDelete
  17. 9 days all in Athens?!
    You saw the entire city already.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Thanks micki! I'm glad that you are also interesting to the history of the Acroplis!

    ReplyDelete
  19. Ola querida Petra, happy new year to you!
    Obrigado e beijos

    ReplyDelete
  20. To London Caller,
    I think that's nearly an entire Athens journey!

    ReplyDelete
  21. Ciao Rafael, I appreciate much your shots that enhance the beauty and architecture of the Acropolis Greek, really well done!
    Have a good day!

    ReplyDelete
  22. Wow, these photos are so gigantic that it almost feels as if I'm really there!


    I see that you are interested in photography! You might enjoy my blog:

    http://picturesofgreatbritain.blogspot.com/

    Every day I post photographs of glorious vistas, charming close-ups, videos, recipes, and interesting tidbits of life in Great Britain for the pleasure of Britophiles and photo-enthusiasts everywhere!

    ReplyDelete
  23. Ciao Sciarada! Thanks for your appreciation!
    Gracias!

    ReplyDelete
  24. Thanks Abby Rogers! Is great to know your blog!

    ReplyDelete
  25. gosh! i thk i missed out this post. as usual great great great

    ReplyDelete
  26. Thanks Lily Riani! I hope you can visit there soon!

    ReplyDelete

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